Cryptococcosis: update and emergence of Cryptococcus gattii
Sally J. Lester1, Richard Malik2, Karen H. Bartlett3, Colleen G. Duncan4
1Pilchuck Veterinary Hospital, Snohomish, WA, USA;
2Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia;
3School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; and
4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease that occurs throughout the world. Recent reclassiﬁcation of Cryptococcus species along with a change in the distribution pattern has prompted reevaluation of the organism and the diseases caused by this pathogen. This review highlights the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii as a primary pathogen in North America and summarizes our current understanding of the disease in mammals and birds.