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Glucuronuria in the koala

STUART MCLEAN,1,∗ SUE BRANDON,1 NOEL W. DAVIES,2 REBECCA BOYLE,1 WILLIAM J. FOLEY,3 BEN MOORE,3 and GEORGIA J. PASS1,4

1School of Pharmacy University of Tasmania Tasmania 7000, Australia

2Central Science Laboratory University of Tasmania Tasmania 7000, Australia

3Division of Botany and Zoology Australian National University ACT 0200, Australia

4Current address: Merck Sharp & Dohme The Neuroscience Research Centre 

ABSTRACT

Glucuronuria is normal in marsupial folivores such as the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), which excretes 2–3 g glucuronic acid daily. Although this has long been attributed to the metabolites of Eucalyptus terpenes, we have found that these are mostly excreted in the unconjugated form. We now report on the aglycones that account for most of the glucuronic acid in koala urine. Urine (24 hr) was collected from six male koalas (8.8±0.4 kg, mean±SE) that were maintained on E. cephalocarpa foliage. Urine samples were analyzed by liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Glucuronides were readily identified by LC-MS/MS, which generated characteristic product ions at m/z 113 and 175. From the corresponding parent glucuronide ions, the masses of the aglycones were calculated. Confirmation of identity was by GC-MS after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and comparison with standard compounds. Quantitation was by GC. The major non-terpeneaglycones were 4-methylcatechol, resorcinol, salicyl alcohol, and two unidentified C7H8O2 phenols. Smaller amounts of benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, orcinol, pcresol, phenol, and phloroglucinol were detected. We have previously reported that terpene metabolites account for about 10% urinary glucuronides in the same koalas fed E. cephalocarpa. The present study found that an additional 60% urinary glucuronic acid is conjugated with non-terpene, mainly phenolic, aglycones. It seems likely that these phenolic compounds are present in leaves as glycosides and are chiefly responsible for the glucuronuria in koalas.

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  • 2013
  • Biogeography
  • Biology
  • Chlamydia
  • Diet
  • Disease
  • Ecology
  • Ellis
  • Eucalyptus
  • Genetics
  • Habitat
  • Infection
  • Interventions
  • Koala
  • Lunney
  • Threats
  • Timms
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