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Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection

Alistair R. Legione,1 Jade L. S. Patterson,1,2 Pam L. Whiteley,1,3 Jemima Amery-Gale,1,4 Michael Lynch,2 Leesa Haynes,5 James R. Gilkerson,6 Adam Polkinghorne,7 Joanne M. Devlin1and Fiona M. Sansom1

1Asia Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
2Veterinary Department, Melbourne Zoo, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
3Wildlife Health Surveillance Victoria, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia
4Australian Wildlife Health Centre, Healesville Sanctuary, Healesville, Victoria, Australia
5Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia
6Centre for Equine Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
7
Centre for Animal Health Innovation, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia

ABSTRACT
Chlamydia pecorum
infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15 %) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular swab. Nucleotide sequencing of the molecular marker C. pecorum ompA revealed that the majority (90/114) of C. pecorum samples typed were genotype B. This genotype has not been reported in northern koalas. In general, Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas is associated with milder clinical signs compared with infection in koalas in northern populations. Although disease pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, the high prevalence of genotype B in Victoria may suggest it is less pathogenic. All but three koalas had C. pecorum genotypes unique to southern koala populations (i.e. Victoria and South Australia). These included a novel C. pecorum ompA genotype and two genotypes associated with livestock. Regression analysis determined that significant factors for the presence of C. pecorum infection were sex and geographical location. The presence of ‘wet bottom’ in males and the presence of reproductive tract pathology in females were significantly associated with C. pecorum infection, suggesting variation in clinical disease manifestations between sexes.

  • All
  • 2013
  • Biogeography
  • Biology
  • Chlamydia
  • Diet
  • Disease
  • Ecology
  • Ellis
  • Eucalyptus
  • Genetics
  • Habitat
  • Infection
  • Interventions
  • Koala
  • Lunney
  • Threats
  • Timms
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