The effects of Eucalyptus terpenes on hepatic cytochrome P450 CYP4A, peroxisomal Acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR α)
Suong Ngoc Thi Ngo, Ross Allan McKinnon*, Ieva Stupans
Centre for Pharmaceutical Research, School of Pharmaceutical, Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of South Australia, SA 5000, Adelaide, Australia
Eucalyptus leaves contain a high proportion of essential oils comprising of a complex mixture of monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, d-limonene and p-cymene. In this study, hepatic levels of microsomal lauric acid hydroxylase and peroxisomal cyanide-intensive palmitoyl coenzyme A oxidative activities were examined in livers of possums given an artificial diet consisting of the above monoterpenes for 10 days. These values were compared with those of possums fed a control diet containing only fruits and cereals. Peroxisomal cyanide-intensive palmitoyl coenzyme A oxidative activity was significantly higher in livers of treated possums relative to that of control possums (2.96±0.93 vs. 0.98±0.88 nmol/mg protein per min, P<0.01) (mean±S.D., n=4). A small increase in microsomal lauric acid hydroxylase activity was observed in the treated possum in comparison with the control group (4.40±0.85 vs. 3.60±0.48 nmol/mg protein per min) (mean±S.D., n=4). A higher NAD/ NADP ratio was observed in treated possums as compared with control possums (4.73±0.65 vs. 3.51±0.64 nmol/mg protein per min, P<0.05) (mean±S.D., n=4). No other statistically significant differences in pyridine nucleotide contents were found between control and treated possums. Northern blot analysis of mRNA from rat, human, terpene treated and control possum livers, using the corresponding koala cDNA probes, detected a more intense acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) mRNA band in livers of terpene fed possums. Negligible differences in the intensity of CYP4A and PPAR α mRNA bands were observed between the two groups. These data suggest that Eucalyptus terpenes elevate hepatic AOX expression in possums.